McGrowder, Donovan; Brown, Paul D
Author Affiliation, Ana.
Effects of nitric oxide on glucose transport: in vivo and in vitro studies
Asian Journal of Biochemistry
Date of Publication
Since the discovery of Nitric Oxide (NO) as an important mediator of vasoregulation, NO has been found to be a diverse biological molecule. The continual release of NO is important for resting vascular tone and more recently, the role of NO in skeletal muscle glucose metabolism and contractile function has been increasing recognized. There is overwhelming evidence that endogenous NO is a critical mediator of insulin- and/or contraction-stimulated glucose transport. However, investigations of the role of exogenous NO donors in glucose metabolism in skeletal muscles have provided conflicting responses. There is evidence that insulin stimulation of glucose uptake in skeletal muscles is NO-dependent and a defect in insulin-induced vasodilation play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in hypertension, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism of insulin resistance by NO may possibly involve key components of the insulin signal transduction pathway. In addition, it is suggested that NO is involved in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake through a mechanism that is distinct from the insulin signal transduction pathway. In light of the conflicting reports and unclear mechanisms of NO in basal, insulin- and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake, this review examines recent developments and explore whether the possible role of NO in regulation of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue uptake may have important clinical significance.....