Hennis, A; Hambleton, I; Tulloch-Reid, M; Barcelo, A; Fraser, H.S; Hassell, T
Author Affiliation, Ana.
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the elderly in Latin America and the Caribbean
Prevention and Control
Date of Publication
http:; www.escardiocontent.org/periodicals/ejcpr/article/S1573-2088(07)00031-1/abstract [Abstract]
Introduction: The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) regions are undergoing a transition from infectious to chronic non-communicable disease, together with and linked to a rapid aging of the population. Although cardiovascular disease is a principal cause of ill-health and death, few data are available among the elderly. Materials and methods: We evaluated people aged 60 and over, living in seven urban centers in LAC: Buenos Aires, Bridgetown, Havana, Mexico City, Montevideo, Santiago, and Sao Paulo, who participated in the ‘Salud, Bienestar, y Envejecimiento’ study (SABE), conducted in 1999 and 2000. We calculated the prevalence of self-reported cardiovascular disease (CVD), and examined its association with established risk factors, using odds ratios (ORs) and their population attributable risks (PARs). Results: The overall prevalence of CVD was 20.3% (95% CI 18.921.6). Rates varied across the region: lowest in Mexico City (10.0%) and Bridgetown (11.1%), intermediate in Buenos Aires (19.6%), Sao Paulo (19.8%), Montevideo (23.8%) and Havana (24.1%), and highest in Santiago (32.2%). CVD prevalence increased by 11% with every additional five-years of age, and was higher in women than men (21.2% vs. 18.9%). Factors related to higher CVD prevalence included hypertension (odds ratio=2.67), diabetes (OR=1.42), obesity (OR=1.19), and smoking (OR=1.31), while regular exercise (OR=0.66), adequate nutrition (OR=0.70), and regular alcohol consumption (OR=0.79) were related to lower CVD prevalence (p=0.01 for BMI, p=0.02 for alcohol consumption, and p<0.001 for all other risk factors). Collectively, these seven modifiable risk factors accounted for 69.7% of the PAR. Discussion: Established and modifiable risk factors underpin CVD prevalence in LAC. Public health programmes, including reliable measures of their effectiveness are needed to reduce the burden of CVD in the region.....